Childhood Bone Cancer :Types, Stages, Symptoms & Treatment

Sonali Kapoor

, Treatments

Childhood bone cancer is also known as baby bone cancer. It can develop in any bone in the body. Childhood osteosarcoma usually starts in areas where the bone grows quickly such as the ends of long bones of the legs and arms. The baby’s health issue is very important for mothers. They always want to know more and more about babies. Today we are going to discuss childhood bone cancer and how to treat this in an effective way.


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What is Childhood Bone Cancer?


Baby bone cancer is a cancerous, or malignant, a tumor which starts in bone or cartilage cells. It can occupy, or grow into, and destroy nearby tissue. It also spread, or metastasizes, to other parts of the body. When cancer starts in the bone, it is called primary bone cancer.


Childhood cancer is rare but non-cancerous conditions of the bone are common like – bone cysts, pathological fractures, and even infections can have the same symptoms as a baby bone cancer.


What are the Types of Childhood Bone Cancer?


There are 2 types of bone cancer :


1. Osteosarcoma:


It is the most common type of bone cancer which happens in children. Almost 40 -50% of all baby bone cancers are osteosarcomas. They appear during the second decade of life during the adolescent growth spurt. They most commonly occur at the sites of the most rapid growth in the end (called the metaphysis) of a long bone. This includes the thigh bone next to the knee, the shin bone next to the knee and the upper arm bone (humerus) next to the shoulder.


2. Ewing Sarcoma:


This is also the most common type of bone cancer in children. It develops in the middle or shaft of the long bones or the bones of the axial skeleton, which includes the pelvis, ribs, spine, and skull.


What are the Stages of Childhood Bone Cancer?


1. Simple Childhood Bone Cancer


Localized Bone Cancer


It is only in the bone where it started and in tissues next to the bone, such as muscle, tendons or fat.


Metastatic Bone Cancer


It spreads to other parts of the body farther from the original tumor. For example, it may have spread to the lungs or other bones not directly connected to the bone where the tumor started. The commonplace for bone cancer to spread is the lungs.


Enneking Staging System Descriptions


The Enneking staging system is another staging system used for osteosarcoma. It is also called the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, or MSTS, staging system. It is based on the grade of the tumor, whether or not the tumor has grown through the wall of the bone and whether or not it has spread. Because all cancerous bone tumors in children are high grade, it is never diagnosed as stage 1.


Stage 2A


This stage cancer is high grade and is only inside the bone.


Stage 2B


This stage cancer is high grade and has grown through the bone wall into other nearby structures. Most osteosarcomas are diagnosed at this stage.


Stage 3


This stage cancer is either inside the bone or grown through the bone into nearby structures. Cancer has spread to other parts of the body or to other bones far away from where cancer started.


Recurrent Bone Cancer


Recurrent bone cancer means that cancer has come back after it has been treated. If it comes back to the same place where cancer first started, it’s called local recurrence. If it comes back in tissues or lymph nodes close to the primary tumor, it’s called regional recurrence. It can also reappear in another part of the body, which is called metastatic bone cancer.


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What are the Symptoms of Childhood Bone Cancer?


There are some symptoms of baby bone cancer:


1. Pain


2. Tiredness


3. Fever


4. Weight loss


5. Swelling or lump


6. Difficulty in moving


What are the Treatments for Childhood Bone Cancer?


There is 3 treatment for baby bone cancer:


If your child has bone cancer, the doctors will create a treatment plan just for your child. It’s all based on your child’s needs and includes a combination of different treatments. It including the type, location, stage and size of the bone tumor.


1. Surgery


Surgery is more commonly used to treat childhood bone cancer. It is used to remove the tumor, if possible, and rebuild the bone. It also helps to remove cancer which spread to the lung.


2. Chemotherapy


Chemotherapy is used to treat childhood bone cancer. It may be given before and after surgery to remove the tumor. It also helps to treat childhood bone cancer that has spread.


3. Radiation Therapy


Radiation therapy is used to treat childhood Ewing sarcoma of the bone. It may be used before and after surgery to remove the tumor. It may also be used instead of surgery to treat the primary tumor.




In the above article, we have talked about childhood bone cancer and its types, stages, symptoms, and treatment. First of all supportive care is most important, as the baby needs support to fight with cancer it also helps the children to recover from this. If your children are feeling any of the above symptoms so consult a doctor as soon as possible.


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