Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD)

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What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease?

Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) has several small cysts in the ovaries. These cysts occur when normal changes in a normal menstrual cycle are altered.

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The ovary enlarges and produces excessive amounts of androgenic and estrogenic hormones. This excessive amount of hormones and the absence of ovulation causes infertility.

PCOD is also referred to as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) or Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

How is PCOD Diagnosed?

PCOD may be easy to diagnose in some patients, while the typical clinical history is that of irregular or very severe and unpredictable menstrual cycles; and the need to take hormone (progestogen) tablets to induce a period.

Patients with PCOD are often overweight or obese and may have hirsutism (excess body and facial hair) due to high androgen hormones.

The disease can be diagnosed with the help of vaginal ultrasound, which shows that both the central stroma and the ovaries are enlarged and have multiple small cysts in the ovaries.

These ovarian cysts are normally arranged in the form of a necklace along outside of the ovary.

PCOD can also be diagnosed by blood tests.

What Are the Causes of PCOD?

PCOD has the significant hereditary or genetic component and is usually transmitted from mother to daughter.

Patients with PCO have high levels of estrogens and androgens which set up a foul cycle.

PCOD also support obesity.

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Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Disease

PCOD treatment for the infertile patient usually concentrates on inducing ovulation to help them conceive.

Weight loss:

Weight loss is an effective treatment for patients with PCOD but crash diets are usually not effective.

Increasing physical activity or exercise is an important step in losing weight.

Aerobic activities such as jogging, walking or swimming are usually advised to PCOD patients.


Surgery is also a treatment option for treating patients with PCOD by using laparoscopy. During operative laparoscopy, a cautery or laser is used to drill multiple holes through the thickened ovarian capsule. This method is called laparoscopic ovarian cauterization or LEOS ( laparoscopic electrocauterization of ovarian stroma) or ovarian drilling.

How is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Used for Treating Patients with PCOD?

If 3 cycles of intrauterine insemination (IUI), a fertility treatment, have failed, then IVF is the excellent treatment option for patients with PCOD.

There is also a risk of PCOD patients related to developing ovarian hyperstimulation.

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