How Are Diabetes and Prediabetes Diagnosed?

Divya Tripathi

, Health A2Z


Nowadays, diabetes is one of the most common diseases across the world. 1 out of the 5 people is a diabetic in India. After seeing this large number of diabetes patient one should know about diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosis tests. So that we kept doing regular tests and could check our blood sugar level even when the symptoms are not clearly visible.


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How Are Diabetes and Prediabetes Diagnosed?


If you want to be sure about your condition, you need to visit the diabetes specialist near you. The doctor specialized in the field of diabetology will help you in diagnosing the condition of diabetes or pre-diabetes. To know your state, he might perform some tests. These tests include Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), Random Plasma Glucose Test, Hemoglobin A1c. Scroll down to know more about these tests.


Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test


The FPG or fasting plasma glucose test is usually done in the morning. It is a test of blood. If your fasting glucose level in your blood is lying under 99 that means you don’t have diabetes. If It lies between 100 to 125 mg/dL, then, you have prediabetes called impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It means that you are more prone to develop type 2 diabetes but do not have it yet. If your blood sugar level is 126 mg/dL or above, then confirmed it by repeating the test on another day, if the number is the same it means that you have diabetes.



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Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)


According to the research, the OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) is more sensitive than the FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) test for diagnosing prediabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. This oral glucose tolerance test requires you to fast for at least eight hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured just before and after two hours you drink a mixture of 75gm glucose and water. If the range of your blood sugar or glucose level is in between 140 and 199 mg/dL after 2 hours of drinking or consuming the glucose mixture, then you are diagnosed to be prediabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, it means that you are more prone to developing type 2 diabetes but do not have it yet. After consuming 75gm of glucose, if the glucose level in the blood raises of 200 mg/dL or above, you should be confirmed by repeating the test on another day, which means that you have diabetes.



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Random Plasma Glucose Test


If the range of random blood glucose level is of around 200 mg/dL or more, additionally, if the following symptoms are also visible, then it means that you have diabetes:


  • Increased urination


  • Increased thirst


  • Unexplained weight loss


Other symptoms of diabetes are blurred vision, fatigue, increased hunger, and sores that do not heal. Your doctor will recommend you to check your blood glucose level on another day using the FPG or the OGTT to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.


Hemoglobin A1c:


Another test for diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosis is Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). This test is usually used to measure blood glucose control in diabetes patients over several months. According to the guidelines use hemoglobin A1c as a screening tool for prediabetes or diabetes. If the HbA1c is 5.6 or less, it means that you don’t have diabetes. If it lies between 5.7% to 6.4% is consistent with prediabetes and marks a time when it can be reversed by lifestyle changes. An HbA1c of 6.5% or higher is consistent with diabetes.



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