Dysmenorrhoea (Menstrual cramps): Symptoms, Causes and Diagnosis

Have you ever heard about dysmenorrhoea? Actually, it is a mensurational pain which usually happens in periods. Most of the women feel this sort of pain in their lives. Feeling this pain is normal but excessive pain might indicate some other problems. It is necessary to consult a doctor in case you of severe pain. Today we are going to talk about dysmenorrhoea and how to treat this.


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What is Dysmenorrhoea?


Dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual cramps, which are caused by uterine contractions directive organs. Cramps and pelvic pain with menstruation, with common causes like heavy flow, passing clots, uterine fibroids or endometriosis.


What are the Types of Dysmenorrhoea?


There are 2 types of dysmenorrhoea:


Primary Dysmenorrhea


It is a common menstrual cramp which is recurring and is not due to other diseases. The pain usually begins 1 or 2 days before, or when menstrual bleeding starts and is felt in the lower abdomen, back, or thighs.


Pain can range from mild to awful, it can usually last 12 to 72 hours, and can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and even diarrhea. The cramps usually become less painful as a woman ages and may stop entirely if the woman conceives a baby.


Secondary Dysmenorrhea

It is the pain which is caused by a disorder in the woman’s reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids, or infection. The pain usually begins earlier in the menstrual cycle and lasts longer than common menstrual cramps.


What are the Symptoms of Dysmenorrhea?


There are some major symptoms of dysmenorrhea:


1. Nausea


2. Vomiting


3. Fatigue


4. Diarrhea


5. Aching pain in the abdomen


6. Feeling of pressure in the abdomen


7. Pain in the hips, lower back, and inner thighs


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What are the Causes of Dysmenorrhea?


Menstrual cramps are usually caused by contractions in the uterus by a chemical called prostaglandin. The internal organ, where a baby grows, contracts throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle. During menstruation, the uterus contracts more strongly.


If the uterus contracts too strongly, it can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the muscle tissue of the uterus.


Diagnosis of Dysmenorrhea


Firstly, the doctor will examine your medical history to check for the underlying causes of your painful menstrual periods. He will also perform a physical examination. It includes a pelvic exam to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive system and to look for signs of infection.




It is a handheld device which sends out sound waves to detect the problem. This device is moved over the skin to see inside your body.


CT scan


An invasive detailed imaging test that uses X-rays to see inside your body.




An invasive detailed imaging test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to see inside your body.


How to Treat Dysmenorrhea?


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs):


You can find these drugs, like Tylenol, over the counter, or get prescription-strength NSAIDs from your doctor.




It can help to lessen some of the mood swings associated with PMS.




Here, we have talked about Dysmenorrhoea (Menstrual cramps) and its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Usually, it is quite normal to have this pain but if the pain gets worse so immediately consult a doctor because the specialist would help you.


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