Know Most Common Types of Congenital Heart Defect

Sonali Kapoor

, Health A2Z

A congenital heart defect is referred to one or more abnormalities in your heart’s structure that you’re born with. This is the most common of birth defects, which can alter the way blood flows through your heart. Today we are going to discuss congenital heart defects and its types of congenital heart defect.


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What is Congestion Heart Defect?


A congestion heart defect is an issue with the structure of the heart. It is present at birth. It is the most common type of birth defect. The defects involve the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart, and the arteries and veins near the heart.


What are the Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defect?


There are some symptoms of congenital heart defect:


1. Rapid breathing


2. Tiredness and fatigue


3. Swelling in the hands, ankles or feet


4.  A blue tinge to the skin


5. Fainting during exercise


What are the Types of Congenital Heart Defect?


These are different types of congenital heart defects are :


1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)


It is a hole in the wall between the upper chambers, or the right and left atria, of your heart. Some ASDs closes on their own. Your doctor needs to repair a medium or large ASD with open-heart surgery or another procedure. The doctor will seal the hole with a minimally invasive catheter procedure. The doctor inserts a small tube, or catheter, in your blood vessel all the way to your heart. Then he covers the hole with a variety of devices.


2. Hole in the Heart (Septal Defect)


This means you are born with a hole in the wall, or septum, that separates the left and right sides of your heart.


3. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)


It is a hole in the part of your septum which separates your heart’s lower chambers or ventricles. If you have this, your blood gets pumped back to your lungs instead of to your body. A small VSD also closes on its own. But if yours is larger, then you need surgery to repair it.


4. Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defect (CAVC)


This is the most serious septal defect. It’s when you have a hole in your heart which affects all four chambers, it prevents oxygen-rich blood from going to the right places in your body. Your doctor can repair it with patches. But few people need more than one surgery to treat it.


5. Valve defects


Valves can control the flow of blood through your heart’s ventricles and arteries.


  • Stenosis: It happens when your valves become narrow or stiff, and won’t open or allow blood to pass easily.


  • Regurgitation: When your valves don’t close tightly, it lets your blood leak backward through them.


  • Atresia: It happens when your valve isn’t formed right or has no opening to let your blood pass through. It causes more complicated heart problems.


  • Ebstein’s anomaly: This is a defect in another heart valve, the tricuspid valve, which may keep it from closing tightly.


  • Pulmonary valve stenosis: This is the common valve defect in newborns. Babies with some serious cases often have strained right ventricles. Your doctor can treat it with a catheter procedure. The doctor will use a catheter, or thin tube, with a balloon on the end to inflate and stretch open the strained valve.


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Other Congestion Heart Defects Like


There are other categories and types of congenital heart defects are:


Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). This is a hole in your baby’s aorta that doesn’t close.


During pregnancy, the hole allows your baby’s blood to bypass his/ her lungs and get oxygen from your umbilical cord. After birth, the baby starts to get oxygen from his/ her own lungs, and the hole has to close.


Truncus arteriosus when your baby is born with one major artery instead of two which carry blood to the rest of his body. Need surgery as an infant to repair the defect and need more procedures later in life.


1. I-Transposition of the Great Arteries:


This means the right and left chambers of your baby’s heart are reversed. The blood still flows normally, but over time, his right ventricle doesn’t work as well because it must pump harder.


2. D-Transposition of the Great Arteries:


When the two main arteries of your baby’s heart are reversed, the blood doesn’t move through the lungs to get oxygen, and oxygen-rich blood doesn’t flow throughout his body.


Single Ventricle Defects:


Some babies are born with a small lower chamber of the heart, or with one valve missing.


1. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome:


When your baby has an undeveloped aorta and lowers left chamber or ventricle.


2. Pulmonary Atresia:


Your baby has no pulmonary valve, which controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs.


3. Tricuspid Atresia:


When your baby has no tricuspid valve, which should be between the upper and lower chambers of the right side of his heart.




Congenital heart defects are also known as Congenital heart disease. Today we are have discussed congestion heart defect, and types of congenital heart defect the only way to cure this is surgery. With the help of a cardiologist, it cures effectively and the balanced diet is also helpful to your recovery.


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