Types Of Genetic Disorders, You Must Know

Somya Verma

, Health A2Z


A lot of times we take care of ourselves from certain kinds of conditions, but that does not really work in our favor. In most cases, it is because of our family history. You must have heard your father or mother being extra concerned about things like diabetes for you. This is because there is a high chance of the child being diabetic in the future, in case of family history. Genetic disorders have been a reason behind a lot of conditions.


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What are genetic disorders?


Genetic disorders are those conditions that are caused due to whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence.


What are the types of genetic disorders?


Here are the types of genetic disorders you might or might not know about. Get to know more about them. Being informed beforehand is a good thing. Learn about these to keep yourself known. Each of these has several particular conditions which you find very common.


Single gene inheritance


This type is also called Mendelian or monogenetic inheritance. It happens due to changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene cause this type of inheritance. There are thousands of known single-gene disorders. Among the known ones that you can be aware of are the followings:



  • Cysts


  • Hemochromatosis


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Multifactorial inheritance


The second type is called Multifactorial inheritance. These are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. For example, different genes that influence breast cancer susceptibility have been found on chromosomes 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 22.


These are also known by the name complex or polygenic inheritance. These are the reasons for a number of chronic conditions which are as follows.



  • High blood pressure



  • Arthritis


  • Diabetes


  • Cancer



These particular chromosome changes are also responsible for heritable traits such as fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, and skin color.


Chromosome abnormalities


Chromosomes are distinct structures made up of DNA and protein, are located in the nucleus of each cell. Because chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. Chromosomal abnormalities typically occur due to a problem with cell division.


One of the classic examples of such a condition is Down syndrome. You may also suffer from conditions because of chromosomal translocation in which portions of two chromosomes are exchanged.


Mitochondrial inheritance


Such a genetic disorder type is caused by mutations in the non-nuclear DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are small round or rod-like organelles that are involved in cellular respiration and found in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells.


Each mitochondrion may contain 5 to 10 circular pieces of DNA. Since egg cells, but not sperm cells, keep their mitochondria during fertilization, mitochondrial DNA is always inherited from the female parent.


We are sure with these types of genetic disorders, your idea is a bit clear on it. In case you need any online consultation, download our GoMedii app, and in 5 easy steps, you can get your consultation done.


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