Female Infertility : Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Tanuja Bisht

, Health A2Z

Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant for at least a year without success. Female infertility, male infertility or a combination of both affects millions of couples in all across the world. It is estimated that approximately 10 to 18% of couples have problems getting pregnant or having a successful birth of a baby.


Infertility is the result of female factors but in other cases, the cause is unknown or a combination of male and female factors.


The causes of female infertility can be difficult to diagnose. There are many treatments that depend on the cause of infertility.


Many infertile couples can receive a child without treatment but it takes a long time like after trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95% of couples managed to get pregnant.


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What is Female Infertility?


Infertility occurs when a couple can not become pregnant after unprotected sex.


A couple may not be able to contribute to conception or a woman may not give birth. It is often defined as not being pregnant after 12 months of regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives.




What are the Causes of Infertility in Women?


The most common causes of female infertility are ovulation problems, fallopian tube or uterine lesions, or problems with the cervix. Age can contribute to infertility because when a woman gets older, her fertility naturally decreases.




What are the Risk Factors for Infertility in Women?


There are several risk factors for infertility in women

1. Age:  The ability to receive begins at the age of 32.


2. Smoking: Smoking greatly increases the risk of infertility in men and women and may compromise the effects of fertility treatment. Smoking during pregnancy increases the chances of a pregnancy loss. Passive smoking has also been associated with a decline in fertility.


3. Alcohol: Any alcohol consumption can affect your chances of getting pregnant.


4. Overweight or overweight: This can increase the risk of infertility in women and men.


5. Eating Disorders: If an eating disorder results in significant weight loss, fertility problems may occur.


6. Diet: Folic acid, iron, zinc and vitamin B-12 deficiency can affect fertility. Women at risk, including those who eat vegan foods, should tell their doctor about supplements.


7. Exercise: Excess and a little exercise can cause fertility problems.


8. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): STIs such as chlamydia can damage the fallopian tubes of a woman and cause inflammation in the human scrotum. Some other STIs can also cause infertility.


9. Exposure to certain chemicals: Some pesticides, herbicides, metals such as lead and solvents have been associated with fertility problems in both men and women. A study with mice has shown that the ingredients in some household cleaners can reduce fertility.


10. Mental Stress: The stress can affect male sperm production and female ovulation with the reduction in sexual activity.


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What are the Treatments for Female Infertility?


Treatment depends on many factors, including the age of the person who wants to receive the treatment, the duration of infertility, personal preferences, and general health.


The couple may be advised to have more sex at the time of ovulation. Sperm can survive in the female for up to 5 days, while an egg can be fertilized up to 1 day after ovulation. Theoretically, it is possible to become pregnant during these 6 days before and during ovulation.


However, an investigation revealed that the 3 most likely days to provide a fertile window are 2 days before ovulation plus 1 day of ovulation.


Some suggest that the number of times a couple has sex should be reduced to increase sperm intake, but it is unlikely to make a difference.






Female infertility is usually not a common problem, but it can be identified easily. If you or your loved one face the same problem or have similar symptoms then immediately consult with the doctor which will not only help you but also solve your problem with the pregnancy.


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