Wild Poliovirus : An Overview, Types and Symptoms of the Disease

Somya Verma

, Health A2Z


The world has been affected by many epidemics, from TB to Cholera. One of the most recent has been wild poliovirus which affected the middle east for a very long time. This particular writeup will throw light upon facts about Wild poliovirus. In this context, one should not forget that polio eradication in all ways has been a priority for a long time. In the case of India, it has been eradicated successfully. The children receive drops but no vaccination is compulsory anymore.


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What is Wild Poliovirus?


As per the Belgian Biosafety, the disease can be described as ” Poliovirus is a class of risk 2 (or Risk Group 2 or Hazard group 2) non-enveloped RNA enterovirus. Enteroviruses are one of the genera belonging to the Picornavirus family, which are very small, icosahedral, nonenveloped ss (+)RNA viruses. Humans are the only natural hosts for polioviruses. A specific protein receptor on susceptible human cells (CD155) allows the attachment and entry of poliovirus.”



What are the Different Types of Wild Poliovirus?


There are various types of polioviruses found as observed, these are:



  • Type 1 causes paralysis in about 1 in 200 infections;


  • Type 2 was last recorded in 1999;


  • Type 3 is less virulent than type 1, causing paralysis in about 1 in 1000 cases.



What are the Symptoms of Wild Poliovirus?


The symptoms are similar to that of the normal polio condition. The virus is usually spread through contamination of food and water. The infected person and their fecal matter can also spread the virus. Here are some symptoms.:





  • Vomiting


  • Stiffness of the neck and pain in the limbs



These, as you can see, are very common symptoms and might not give you any hint. These can, however, be the cause of 1% of irreversible paralysis.


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Why is the Wild Poliovirus in the News?



In one of the reports published by WHO, there was mention of the disease around the Mediterranean. This is mainly in the region of Iran. the report read “On 9 May 2019, the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) notified WHO of the detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from an environmental sewage sample collected on 20 April 2019 in Konarak district, Sistan-Baluchistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. The virus was detected in an environmental sample only, and to date, no associated cases of paralysis have been detected.”



This has been the recent news as the virus had been reported to decline back in 2015 but cases came up in the region at the end of the month of September.



What is the Prevention of Wild Poliovirus?


There is no cure for polio, it can only be prevented. The polio vaccine, given multiple times, can protect a child for life. This virus can cause untimely death and chronic existence.


While this is new trouble that the world seems to face recently, it is time we react effectively. Wild Poliovirus has also been reported in parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan who are the immediate neighbors. It becomes important that we take action to protect the nation from something that can be a new epidemic to take care of. You will always find help on our website from qualified health experts.


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