Know About Neuromuscular Disorders By Neurologist Dr. Rajnesh Kumar




The brain is the part of the body which controls the movements of your skeletal muscles through specialized nerves. The combination of your nervous system and muscle are working together to allow movement and it is known as the neuromuscular system. The diseases related to the neuromuscular system are known as neuromuscular disorders.


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There are many diseases that are classified as neuromuscular disorders. If you want to move any part of your body, a message is sent to particular nerve cells, called upper motor neurons. Today we are going to explore Neuromuscular Disorder and its symptoms.

What are Neuromuscular Disorders?


Neuromuscular disorders are generally inherited conditions which affect some part of your neuromuscular system. Neuromuscular disorders tend to be progressive and result in muscle weakness as well as fatigue. Some of these disorders are present at birth, some recognized in childhood, and others have an adult onset.

These disorders may be genetically passed down or due to a spontaneous genetic mutation, may be due to an abnormal immune response, poisoning, inflammation, toxins or tumors.

What are the Symptoms of Neuromuscular Disorders?


The symptoms of the neuromuscular disorder vary according to the condition and can be mild, moderate or life-threatening accordingly. Some of these symptoms may include:


  • Muscular weakness
  • Muscle wastage
  • Muscular cramps
  • Muscle spasticity
  • Muscle pain
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Swallowing difficulties


What are the Causes of Neuromuscular Disorders?


Some common causes of the disorder may include:


  • Genetic mutation
  • Viral infection
  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Hormonal disorder
  • Metabolic disorder
  • Dietary deficiency
  • Certain drugs and poisons
  • Unknown factors


Categorization of Neuromuscular Disorders:



  • Muscular Dystrophies: It involves the structure of the muscle cells.
  • Peripheral Motor Neuron Diseases: It involves the muscle-controlling nerve cells of the arms, neck, legs, and face
  • Motor Neuron Diseases – It involves the nerve cells in the spinal cord
  • Neuromuscular Junction Diseases – It involves the place where nerves and muscles meet
  • Myopathies: It involving contraction and tone of muscles controlling voluntary movements; may include inflammation of muscles or related tissues
  • Metabolic Diseases of the Muscle – It involving errors in metabolism in producing energy in muscle cells


Treatment of Neuromuscular Disorders


However, there is no cure for most of the neuromuscular disorders, but some can be effectively managed. Some common interventions include:


Drug Therapy


Immunosuppressive drugs can treat nerve diseases and diseases of the nerve-muscle junctions. Anticonvulsants and antidepressants can be used to treat the pain occur by neuropathy.


Referrals to Appropriate Specialists


Patients may receive referrals to surgeons for thoracic surgery, neurological surgery, orthopedic surgery or other kinds of surgery.


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