Hyperplastic candidiasis is also known as candidal leukoplakia. It is a form of oral candidiasis that is classically presented as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa and it is mainly caused by Candida albicans.
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The lesions are asymptomatic and but regress after appropriate antifungal therapy and correction of the underlying cause. In case the treatment of lesions is not done, then a small portion may develop dysplasia and later progress into carcinoma.
What Are The Causes of Hyperplastic Candidiasis?
When we are talking about the causes then oral candidiasis present in the oral cavities of healthy individuals as a commensal organism. The transformation from commensal organism to the pathogen. And it depends on the intervention of event predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection.
So these factors are :
- Dietary factors
- Chronic local irritants
- Inadequate care of appliances
- Immunological and endocrine disorders
- Radiation to the head and neck
- Severe blood dyscrasias
- Abnormal nutrition
- Malignant and chronic diseases
- Oral epithelial dysplasia
What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperplastic Candidiasis?
Sometimes, you don’t feel any symptoms and but the condition may only be seen when your mouth is examined by the doctor. In case you have chronic hyperplastic candidiasis CHC then you may feel these symptoms:
- White patches
- Red spots with white patches
How Can You Prevent From CHC?
If you take the following steps you may be able to prevent it from developing:
- Quit smoking
- You have to maintain good oral hygiene
- You have to regularly rinse your mouth with water when using steroid inhalers
- Eat a healthy diet
In case, it is increased then it can also develop cancer in areas affected by chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. This is similar to the increased risk of mouth cancer in smokers. The common symptom of CHC like white patches on the inner surfaces of your cheeks, the corners of your mouth, and/or on parts of your tongue.
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How It Is Diagnosed?
To diagnosis Hyperplastic candidiasis, a dentist closely examines your mouth. Then they will suggest any tests that will be used to confirm the diagnosis, e.g. an oral rinse. In case you have an oral rinse test then you will be asked to rinse your mouth with salty water and spit into a container.
This sample sends to a laboratory where they will identify whether the candida is present in your mouth, and, what type it is. Sometimes a doctor will also need to take a biopsy of the patch, which means that a small sample of your affected area will be taken and viewed by a pathologist under a microscope then they will take any decision.
How Is Hyperplastic Candidiasis Treated?
To treat hyperplastic candidiasis is to eliminate from the affected area and remove any other factors like smoking because it can increase the risk of developing mouth cancer. If any underlying cause must be noticed for example, if you are a heavy smoker or consuming more alcohol then your doctor will be suggested to stop smoking and reduce alcohol intake. Your health care will be prescribed you some medicines to eliminate the candida from your mouth.
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