Hyperthyroidism: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Vaibhav Saxena

, Health A2Z

In today’s time, maintaining a robust, disease-free healthy lifestyle is the most difficult task. Whereas, Hyperthyroidism is a chronic disease which acquires a large number of people to fall sick which definitely hinders our goal of staying healthy. This disease has many aspects which must be learned in order to tackle it.


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What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is the condition of the thyroid which also called overactive thyroid. The thyroid is the butterfly-shaped gland situated in the middle front portion of the neck. The thyroid is responsible for producing hormones named T3 and T4 which control the energy produced by the cells of the body. This particular gland manages metabolism through the release of these hormones.


In case of hyperthyroidism, the release of these both hormones or either one is increased excessively. This dysfunctioning cause sudden weight loss, weakness in bones and muscles, and many other troubles which are mentioned in the symptoms of the overactive thyroid below.




What are the Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?

The condition of hyperthyroidism leads to a metabolism dysfunction which is called a hypermetabolic state. During this state, the sufferer is likely to encounter problems like a rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and hand tremors. Apart from this state, there are many more symptoms and signs that are faced by the sufferer.

  • Nervousness and restlessness
  • Weakness
  • Skin thinning
  • Fine, brittle hair
  • Tremor
  • Changes in menstrual patterns
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Fine, brittle hair
  • Itching
  • Hair loss
  • Nausea and vomiting

There are a few more complications that arose due to overactive thyroid which is atrial fibrillation and osteoarthritis. If the symptoms become traumatic and risky like dizziness, irregular heart rate or unconsciousness, immediate medical help must be sought.




What are the Causes of Hyperthyroidism?

There many factors which are held responsible for causing Hyperthyroidism. Grave’s disease stands on the top of the list of these factors. Grave’s Disease is an autoimmune disorder which causes antibodies to stimulate the thyroid to secrete too much hormone.


This disease occurs more frequently in women than men which is the reason why women are more exposed to the overactive thyroid condition. There are more possible factors which can lead to this disease which are enlisted below.


  • Iodine presence in a heavy amount which is a key ingredient in T4 and T3
  • Thyroiditis which causes T4 and T3 to leak out of the gland
  • Ovaries or testes tumors
  • Benign tumors of the thyroid or pituitary gland
  • Excessive tetraiodothyronine in the body


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How is Hyperthyroidism Diagnosed?

There are multiple tests and analysis a doctor conducts to reach a conclusion of this disease. The better diagnosis helps the doctor to get a better picture of the severity of the disease.


1. Physical Exam:

This test is conducted by the doctor to recognize the signs and symptoms faced by the patient. The patients reply to the questions asked by the doctors through which the doctor tracks down the symptoms like weight loss, rapid pulse, elevated blood pressure or enlarged thyroid gland.


2. Cholesterol Test:

Cholesterol levels play important is thyroid as well. Low cholesterol can be a sign of an elevated metabolic rate, in which your body is burning through cholesterol quickly.


3. T4, free T4, T3:

The T4 and T3 levels are checked through this test as these two factors are highly responsible for arousing this condition.


4. Ultrasound:

Ultrasounds can measure the size of the entire thyroid gland, as well as any masses within it. Doctors can also use ultrasounds to determine if a mass is solid or cystic.


5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level Test:

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a pituitary gland hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones. This TSH also signifies the condition of your thyroid so this test is essential as well.


6. Triglyceride Test:

The triglyceride level is essential as well because low triglycerides can be a sign of an elevated metabolic rate.


7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake:

This allows your doctor to see if your thyroid is overactive. In particular, it can reveal whether the entire thyroid or just a single area of the gland is causing the overactivity.




What are the Treatments for Hyperthyroidism?

Alongside with the long list of symptoms and risks of hyperthyroidism, there are many possible treatment measures available as well.

1. Medications: During the initial stage, the doctor will most likely to prescribe medications that will eliminate the symptoms and help in coping with the overactive thyroid.


2. Radioactive iodine: Radioactive iodine is given to the people to consume which helps in destroying the cells that produce the hormones. Whereas, there many side effects like dry mouth, taste changes, sore throat and eye dryness which can differ from one person to another.


3. Surgery: After the failure of all possible measure, surgery turns out to be the only solution in which the doctors invasively remove the thyroid gland entirely or a small portion of it.





Hyperthyroidism has been increasing day by day from past decade due to poor lifestyle and diet. We learned that women are more exposed to this disease than men which is why women must take every possible measure to avoid this chronic disease.


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