Know More About Top 15 Infectious Diseases

Vaibhav Saxena

, Health A2Z

Infectious disease is caused by the reaction of smallest living organisms which are called micro-organisms. These micro-organisms are not visible to us through our naked eyes which makes them fatal and more harmful. Now the question arrives that if we can’t see them so how can we tackle them! There are multiple preventions and treatments based on eliminating risks that are aroused by these micro-organisms.




What is Infectious Disease?

Infectious disease is generally termed as transmissible disease or communicable disease or just an Infection by many people. These diseases are categorized as disorders which are caused by the invasion of harmful tissues in the host tissue of a body whereas, the multiplication of this harmful tissue in a massive amount leads to illness.


The transmissible disease is caused by pathogens like viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths.




What are the Types of Infectious Disease?

There are various kinds of Infectious diseases that are caused due to different kinds of pathogens or infectious agents. Moreover, each and every different disease depicts different kinds of symptoms and causes with slightly similar treatment measures.

  • Anthrax
  • Bird Flu
  • Chikungunya
  • Cholera
  • Dengue Fever
  • E. Coli
  • Ebola
  • Jaundice
  • Lyme Disease
  • Malaria
  • Measles
  • Rabies
  • Streptococcus
  • Tetanus
  • Typhoid Fever

Abovelying is the curated list of the most common transmissible diseases whereas there are many more uncommon and rare infections as well.




What are the Symptoms of Infectious Disease?

As we discussed earlier, the symptoms and signs of every infection differ from each other whereas, there are a few common ones which are mentioned below.

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle aches
  • Diarrhea
  • Coughing




What are the Causes of Infectious Disease?

The primary causes of the communicable disease are the invasion of harmful tissues of pathogens in the human body.

1. Bacteria: Bacterias are mostly good for health but in some conditions, they can cause strep throat, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis.


2. Viruses: Viruses can be fatal and rigid to be cured. They can cause diseases from common cold to Ebola.


3. Fungi: Fungi can cause skin diseases like ringworm and athlete’s foot. Also, fungi can cause lungs or nervous system infection.


4. Parasites: Parasites are visible to our naked eyes often. These parasites thrive on human blood and transmit pathogens carried by feces or other carriers.


We learned about the kinds of pathogens and what kind of diseases and risk they are capable of spreading. Furthermore, the methods of transmission will be discussed.


1. Direct Contact: The infection is most commonly and majorly spread by getting in contact with a person, animal or other carriers like animals which are already suffering from the infection. The pathogens are spread through a sneeze or cough of a human being and scratches or rubbing of animals.


2. Indirect Contact: It is proven that these microbes have the capability to linger on an inanimate object which causes infection to transmit. If a person touches an object that is already used or touched by an infected person, the infection transmits.


3. Insect Bites: The most reliable carriers for the germs are mosquitoes, fleas, lice or ticks. These parasites are called vectors which skip from one host to another by spreading the germs.


4. Contaminated Food: Unhygienic diet and undercooked food have the possibility to carry germs in it which are later transmitted to the consumer(human being).




How to Prevent Infectious Disease?

In order to prevent these transmissible diseases, one needs to eliminate the possibilities of these microbes to enter the body. There are a few essential that must be followed for remaining on the safe side.


1. Clean Your Hands: It is necessary to maintain hygiene by washing your hands after touching or holding any public and outdoor object. Also, keep hands clean after using the toilet and before consuming a meal.


2. Vaccination: Immunity is the key factor that helps in reducing the risks of these infections. The vaccine helps in boosting the immunity for a long period of time.


3. Keep Indoors: In case you are sick, avoid any outdoor visits as your infection can be spread further. Also, in the case of you are planning a tour, consult your doctor as the different environment can increase the risks of many infections.


4. Safe Sex: Intercourse sex and even oral sex can potentially transmit virus and bacteria so always use condoms and avoid sex in case of flu and viral infection.




How is Infectious Disease Diagnosed?

It is extremely necessary to conduct a proper and specific diagnosis of the ailment as it is only possible to continue treatment procedure after analyzing the responsible microbe behind it. There are multiple diagnosis procedures that are enlisted below.

1. Imaging Test

There are many imaging processes that are used to extract the exact condition of the body. In case of infectious disease, imaging tests such as X-rays, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are conducted.


2. Laboratory Test

The doctor might require an in-depth analysis of the condition as many infections depict similar and exact symptoms which make it difficult to conclude the problem. Hence, lab tests like blood test, urine test, throat swabs, stool sample and spinal tap are conducted.


3. Biopsy

The biopsy involves the invasion by the doctor for testing the particular part of the affected part of the body. This involves extracting tissues of the infected part for thorough analysis.




What is the Treatment for Infectious Disease?

The treatment procedure of the communicable disease can vary from short to long which depends on the severity of the disease. The severity is defined by the amount of the pathogen has been spread, the more it has been spread the worse it becomes to heal.

The doctor primarily seeks towards the kind of microbe which has been causing the ailment then prescribes suitable medication that involves antibiotics, anti-virals, anti-parasitics, and antifungals. Also, in the case of extreme chronicity of infection, the doctor might prefer surgery in order to pluck away the infected part.





The infectious disease is extremely common nowadays because of the change in the environment, air, and water. People must stay cautious and should opt for every preventative measure to avoid any kind of communicable disease.

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