Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Know The Types & Symptoms

Somya Verma

, Health A2Z

When we consider our health, we make sure we know all the aspects that can cause harm to us. Similarly, when you are already dealing with a chronic condition, you must know as much as possible. One of them is Diabetes. You may or may not have heard of something known as Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.


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We understand that knowing all aspects of something like diabetes is impossible. However, we would still suggest that through this writeup you are also clear with a lot of things about, Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.


What is Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?


As we know, Nephro is something related to the kidney. Hence, even this kind of diabetes is something to do with Kidney function. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an inability to concentrate urine due to impaired renal tubule response to vasopressin (ADH), which leads to the excretion of large amounts of dilute urine.


How does a person get Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?


When we talk about the source from where can one get this kind and type of diabetes. Then, let us tell you, it can be inherited as well as acquired.


Here are the two types in proper explanation:


1) Inherited


A common inherited NDI is an X-linked trait which affects mostly the females. The frequency to inherit is high with those who have different chromosomes that are X and Y. We would like to explain, that females either inherit both X and Y chromosomes or just one of the types.


2) Acquired NDI


Acquired NDI can occur when disorders (many of which are tubulointerstitial diseases) or drugs disrupt the medulla or distal nephrons and impair urine concentrating ability, making the kidneys appear insensitive to vasopressin.


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What are the common signs and symptoms of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus?


Unlike normal diabetes which only relates to high sugar level, in the case of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus they are specific.


1) Excess urination


A large amount of urine is generated, which may amount to almost 2-20lt/day. If that is not a problem, then what is? Hence you must visit your diabetologist as soon as you feel so.


2)Uncontrollable and excessive thirst


Uncontrollable and excessive thirst is also a symptom. Though this might be something that you are struggling even as a normal diabetic patient. However, when things go out of hand, you must see your doctor.


3) Vomiting and Unexplained Fever


In some cases of infants, you might have the problem of vomiting. Also, sometimes without a known cause, you tend to get a fever. In this case, meet your doctor.


4) Lethargic and Irritated


There are high chances of the patient being extremely lazy or inactive. A lot of reasons might be responsible for this, however, one must get regular checkups to know the exact cause.



Infants and adults with NDI may rapidly develop dehydration following low water intake, a hot environment, or concurrent illness. Infants with Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus may experience repeated episodes of dehydration, which can result in weakness, confusion, dry mucous membranes, dry skin, and weight loss.


If left untreated, severe dehydration may develop. Repeated episodes of severe dehydration may result in significant abnormalities including seizures, brain damage, developmental delays, and physical and mental disability. However, with proper diagnosis and prompt treatment, intelligence and development are usually normal.


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