PCOS : Overview, Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment by Dr. Pinky Mishra

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) has several small cysts in the ovaries. These cysts appear when normal changes in a normal menstrual cycle are altered. The ovary enlarges and produces excessive amounts of androgenic and estrogenic hormones. This excessive amount of hormones and the absence of ovulation causes infertility. PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is also referred to as PCOD or Stein-Leventhal syndrome.


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What is PCOS?


PCOS is a hormonal disorder which is common in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Well, the ovaries develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.


What are the Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?



These are the common symptoms of the syndrome:



  • Irregular Periods



  • Heavy Bleeding



  • Acne



  • Skin darkens


  • Trouble getting pregnant


  • The problem in sleeping, Tired all the time


What are the Causes of PCOS?


  1. Overconsumption of Insulin


Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar. Cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin will increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.



  1. Inflammation


This term is used to describe white blood cells’ production of substances to fight infection. Those women who suffer PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation which stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.



  1. Heredity


Research showed that certain genes might be linked to a syndrome.



  1. Excess Androgen


The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne.


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What are the Complications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?


There are some complications of PCOS:





To get pregnant, you have to ovulate. Women who are not ovulating regularly don’t release as many eggs to be fertilized. PCOS is one of the major cause of infertility in women.



Depression, Anxiety and Eating Disorders


Hormonal changes and signs like – unwanted hair growth can negatively affect your emotions. Many with PCOD experiencing depression and anxiety.



Sleep Apnea


In this condition causes repeated pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupt sleep. It is very common in women who are overweight especially if they also have PCOD. The risk for sleep apnea is 10 times higher in obese women.



Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis


The liver inflammation caused by fat accumulation in the liver.



Metabolic Syndrome


It includes high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that significantly increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.


What is the Best Treatment for PCOS?



There are a few ways to treat PCOS:



Lifestyle Changes


Your doctor may suggest weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate exercise activities. A modest reduction in your weight, for example, losing 5 percent of your body weight might improve your condition. Losing weight also increase the effectiveness of medications your doctor recommends for PCOS and can help with infertility.





  • Birth Control Pills


Pills contain estrogen and progestin decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Control your hormones can lower your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne.



  • Progestin Therapy


Taking progestin for 10 to 14 days every one to two months it can regulate your periods and protect against endometrial cancer. This therapy doesn’t improve androgen levels and won’t prevent pregnancy.


Home Remedies of PCOS?



  1. Maintain a Healthy Weight


Weight loss can reduce insulin and androgen levels and restore ovulation. Consult your doctor about a weight control program, and follow the diet to reaching weight-loss goals.


  1. Be Active


Exercise helps to lower blood sugar levels. If you have Polycystic ovary syndrome, it increasing your daily activity and participating in a regular exercise program prevent insulin resistance and help you keep your weight under control and avoid developing diabetes.


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