Testicular Cancer : Signs, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Rahul Upadhyay

, Treatments

Testicular cancer is one of the rarest cancer found in men of age ranging from 15 to 34 years. This cancer is treatable and curable. It occurs on the testicles ( testes ). The testicles are the reproductive organs in males. They are the golf sized balls present inside a bag like structure called scrotum under the penis. The testicles are responsible to produce male sex hormones and sperm which is used in the process of reproduction.


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This type of cancer is rare and 95% of cases are seen where the victim lives 5 or more years after the diagnosis. Depending upon the size and exact place of testicular cancer, the victim is advised about the proper way of treatment. There are some common signs and symptoms which are observed in such a case. They are mentioned below:


What are the Symptoms of Testicular Cancer?


1. A painless lump on either of the testicle


2. Mild pain in the lower abdomen


3. A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum


4. A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum


5. Pain or discomfort in either of the scrotum


6. Back pain


Testicular cancer affects only a single testis, though it can occur on both of them, mostly it is found to affect any one of them. It is advised to consult the doctor in case of any severe complications such as a sudden pain, swelling or lumps on the testicle or scrotum. Read further to know the causes of Testicular cancer.


What are the Causes of Testicular Cancer?


In most of the cases, it is not clear that what actually causes it. But there are certain risk factors which may increase the possibility of a man to suffer from testicular cancer. Look below to find some of them:


1. Cryptorchidism:


If there is no downward movement observed in the testicles at the time of the birth, the child may suffer from this disease later on.


2. Congenital Abnormalities:


The males who are born with some abnormalities in the penis, kidneys, and testicles.


3. History of Testicular Cancer:


If the person has had already suffered from this disease, he is more likely to develop the problem in another testis.


4. Family History:

As compared to other men, the male who has relative suffering or suffered from this cancer is more likely to develop it.


5. Abnormal Testicular Development:


The abnormal development or growth of the testes may result in testicular cancer.


6. Race:


Weirdly, this cancer is more common in white men than in black men.


Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer:


The good part is that testicular cancer is treatable and curable. Below-mentioned are some ways the doctor uses to diagnose the disease.

In most of the cases, the man himself discover some unusual thing on his testicles such as a lump or swelling. In other cases, the doctor himself identifies the lump or any other issue while the routine physical check-up. Some of the techniques used by the doctors to identify this cancer are:


1. Ultrasound


In this diagnosis, sound waves are used to obtain an image of the scrotum and testicles. This procedure starts when the patient lies down on his back, the doctor then apply a gel-like substance on the scrotum. Furthermore, a hand help probe is moved over his scrotum to obtain a clear image.


2. Blood Test


In order to diagnose this cancer, some doctors order the patient for a blood test to check the number of tumor markers present in the blood. Though tumor markers are present in the bloodstream of every human but in the case of testicular cancer, the number is elevated.

After the patient is found to be suffering from testicular cancer, treatment of the same is required. There are certain ways used by the doctors to treat testicular cancer. Scroll down to have a look on them.


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Treatment of Testicular Cancer


1. Orchiectomy:


When the patient is diagnosed at the first stage of this cancer, the doctor surgically removes the affected testicle to prevent cancer from spreading. Surgery may be the only treatment needed at this stage. It is a straightforward way of operating. A dose of anesthesia is given to the patient and the testicle is removed. The patient stays at the hospital for a few days. Sex life and reproductive growth of the patient is not affected if one of the testicles remains unaffected.


2. Fertility:


If both the testicles are affected, a patient is advised to store the sperm before the operation if the male wishes to have children in the future. The sperm is stored in the sperm bank before the testicles are removed. If the patient has left with one testicle, the sex and reproductive life will not be affected after the surgery.


3. Lymph Node Surgery:


If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, they will need to be removed through surgery. Usually, the lymph nodes in the chest and abdomen are removed. This treatment can result in infertility.


4.Radiation Therapy:


Beams of high energy X-rays and particles are used to destroy the cancer cells. This therapy kills the DNA inside the tumor cells which prevents them to reproduce. There are some temporary side effects associated with radiotherapies such as tiredness, rashes, muscle stiffness, loss of appetite and nausea.


5. Chemotherapy:


In this treatment technique, chemicals are used to destroy the cancer cells. A special type of drug knows as cytotoxic medications prevent cancer cell from growing. This treatment to eliminate testicular cancer is given to those patients who are suffering from advanced testicular cancer where cancer has spread to other parts of the body. The treatment is administered either orally or through injections. The drawback of this technique is that along with the cancerous cells, it destroys non-cancerous cells as well. Some of the temporary side-effects associated with this treatment are nausea, vomiting, mouth sores, hair loss, and tiredness.



Many men who develop testicular cancer do not have any known risk factors. This is the reason that prevention of this cancer is not possible due to a large number of unknown causes. So, if you find any of the above mention symptoms then consult your doctor as soon as possible.


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