High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Diagnosis and Treatment

Tanuja Bisht

, Health A2Z

Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. This can lead to serious complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.


Blood pressure is basically defined as the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The pressure depends on the work done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.


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The medical guidelines define hypertension as blood pressure greater than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to the guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017.


About 85 million people around the world are suffering from hypertension.


Hypertension and heart disease are topmost health problems around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that the growth of the processed food industry has had an impact on the amount of salt in diets worldwide that ultimately plays a role in hypertension.


High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Diagnosis and Treatment




How to Diagnose a High Blood Pressure?


To diagnose a high blood pressure, you will undergo a blood pressure test. Your doctor or specialist will usually put an inflatable cuff around your arm and measure your blood pressure with a pressure gauge.


A blood pressure reading, expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), has two digits. The first number or higher measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats (systolic pressure). The second or smallest number measures the pressure in the arteries between strokes (diastolic pressure).


Your blood pressure is considered normal if it is below 120/80 mm Hg. The other blood pressure measurements are classified as follows:



  • Hypertension is a systolic pressure in the range of 120 to 129 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of less than 80 mm Hg. Hypertension tends to worsen over time if no action is taken. to control the blood pressure.


  • Stage 1 hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension is a systolic pressure in the range of 130 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure in the range of 80 to 89 mm Hg.


  • Stage 2 hypertension. The most severe hypertension, stage 2 hypertension, is a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or more or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or more.


Since blood pressure tends to fluctuate, the diagnosis of hypertension is based on the average of two or more blood pressure measurements consistently taken at different times. In general, you need to measure your blood pressure in both arms to see if there is a difference. Your doctor will ask you to record your blood pressure at home and at work to provide additional information.


Your doctor may suggest a 24-hour blood pressure monitoring test for outpatient blood pressure monitoring. The device for this test measures your blood pressure periodically over a 24-hour period and provides a more accurate picture of changes in blood pressure during an average day and night. However, these devices are not available in all medical centers and are rarely reimbursed.


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What are the Treatments for High Blood Pressure?


If you suffer from high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney disease, or cardiovascular disease, your doctor may recommend blood pressure medicines in addition to lifestyle changes.


If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, the benefits of these drugs are not much enough to control the blood pressure. Apart from this, if you have stage 1 or 2 high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe you these medications. Your doctor may suggest that you can control your blood pressure with these lifestyle changes, such as:


Maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight if you are overweight or obese;


  • Eating healthy and low salted food.


  • Exercise regularly on a daily bases.


  • Limit the amount of alcohol intake.





As hypertension or a high blood pressure is a health condition, mainly related to diet habit, daily routine, and lifestyle. If you have a minor blood pressure then it can be easily treated with a slight change in your daily routine and eating habit.


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