- 2 What Is Parkinson’s Disease?
- 4 What Are The Stages Of Parkinson’s Disease?
- 5 What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease?
- 6 What Causes Parkinson’s Disease?
- 7 What Are The Risk Factors Of Parkinson’s Disease?
- 8 What Are The Complications Of Parkinson’s Disease?
- 9 Diagnostic Tests For Parkinson’s Disease
- 10 Parkinson’s Disease Surgery In India
- 11 Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Cost In India
- 12 Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Hospitals In India
- 13 FAQs On Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Cost In India
When Zenia’s father was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, her family’s world turned upside down. They watched as his once-strong body struggled to move, and his vibrant personality faded away. But Zenia refused to give up hope. She got to know about GoMedii while searching about the disease. From there, it was a jounery towards renewed faith and recovery.
According to a report by Parkinson’s Foundation, Parkinson’s is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. More than 10 million people worldwide are living with Parkinson’s Disease. In India, there are around 7 million PD patients in India.
Keep on reading!
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What Is Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects a person’s movements. It causes unintended tremors, shaking, stiffness, and causes problems with balance and coordination. The condition has no cure, though treatment can help control uncontrollable movements. It’s a disease that worsens over time, and with it comes difficulty in walking and talking.
The onset of this disease is due to the loss of brain cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This part of the brain helps produce a chemical called “dopamine” that helps different parts of the brain and nervous system communicate with each other. Without enough dopamine, the body can have trouble moving normally.
What Are The Stages Of Parkinson’s Disease?
There are four main stages of Parkinson’s disease:
- Non-Motor Aspects of Daily Living (Part 1): This section addresses non-movement symptoms such as dementia, depression, anxiety, mental health issues, as well as pain, constipation, incontinence, and fatigue, among others.
- Motor Aspects of Daily Living (Part 2): This part assesses the impact on tasks related to movement, encompassing abilities like speaking, eating, chewing, swallowing, dressing, bathing, and managing tremors, among other activities.
- Motor Examination (Part 3): Healthcare providers utilize this section to evaluate the motor-related effects of Parkinson’s disease. It assesses factors like speech, facial expressions, stiffness, walking gait, balance, movement speed, and tremors, among others.
- Motor Complications (Part 4): In this section, healthcare providers determine how symptoms of Parkinson’s disease affect daily life. This includes evaluating the duration and impact of specific symptoms throughout the day and their influence on daily activities and routines.
What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease?
The symptoms of Parkinson’s can vary from person to person. They tend to start very slowly, starting with a barely noticable tremor. During the initial phases of Parkinson’s disease, facial expression may appear minimal or absent, arm swinging may diminish while walking, and speech may become quieter or unclear. As the condition advances over time, Parkinson’s symptoms tend to exacerbate.
The symptoms include:
- Tremor: Rhythmic shaking, often starting in a limb, such as the hand, with a pill-rolling tremor. The tremor may ease during tasks.
- Slowed Movement (Bradykinesia): Gradual slowing of movement over time, making simple tasks more challenging, like getting up from a chair or walking with shorter steps.
- Muscle Stiffness: Stiff muscles, potentially painful and limiting in range of motion, can affect any part of the body.
- Posture and Balance Issues: These may manifest as a stooped posture, balance problems, or falls.
- Loss of Automatic Movements: Reduced ability to perform unconscious actions like blinking, smiling, or swinging arms while walking.
- Speech Changes: Speech may become soft, rapid, slurred, or hesitant, often with a monotone quality.
- Altered Writing: Difficulty in writing, resulting in smaller, less legible handwriting.
Additional motor symptoms may encompass:
- Reduced Blinking: A decrease in the frequency of blinking, which is linked to diminished control of facial muscles.
- Micrographia: Handwriting may become cramped or smaller due to difficulties in muscle control.
- Drooling: Loss of control over facial muscles can lead to drooling.
- Hypomimia: Facial expressions may become limited or appear immobile, resulting in a mask-like facial expression.
- Dysphagia: Difficulty in swallowing due to reduced muscle control in the throat, potentially increasing the risk of issues like pneumonia or choking.
- Hypophonia: A speaking voice that becomes unusually soft, often resulting from reduced muscle control in the throat and chest.
What Causes Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease, the neural connections tend to break down gradually, leading to unusual activity in the brain. When the neurons start to die, the production of a chemical called dopamine, that acts as a messanger, gets hampered. Lowered levels of dopamine leads to problems with movements and manifest other symptoms.
While the exact reason behind the onset of the disease is unknown, scientists have deduced some factors that can contribute towards the development of this disease.
- Genetic Changes: Specific genetic alterations have been identified as causes of Parkinson’s disease, but they are rare, mainly occurring in families with a significant history of the condition. However, certain gene variations increase the risk of Parkinson’s, although the individual risk for each of these genetic markers is relatively low.
- Environmental Influences: Exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors can raise the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, although this risk is generally small.
- Brain Changes: Researchers have observed various brain changes in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Notably, the presence of microscopic clumps called Lewy bodies within brain cells is a characteristic marker. These Lewy bodies, containing substances like alpha-synuclein protein, are a focus of Parkinson’s research. The clumped form of alpha-synuclein, which cells cannot break down, is found within Lewy bodies. This protein has also been detected in the spinal fluid of individuals who later develop Parkinson’s disease, further emphasizing its significance in research.
What Are The Risk Factors Of Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease varies with age, typically emerging in middle to late life, with a higher risk associated with aging, usually around age 60 or later. In rare cases, it affects younger individuals, warranting genetic counseling for family planning and consideration of unique work, social, and medication-related aspects.
- Heredity plays a role, especially if you have numerous family members with Parkinson’s disease, but the risk remains relatively low unless it runs strongly in your family.
- Men are more prone to Parkinson’s disease than women.
- Continuous exposure to herbicides and pesticides may slightly elevate the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
What Are The Complications Of Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease often presents with additional treatable issues:
- Cognitive Challenges: Cognitive problems, including dementia and thinking difficulties, typically appear in the later stages of the disease and usually do not respond well to medication.
- Depression and Emotional Changes: Depression may manifest, even in the early stages. Treating depression can help in managing the overall challenges of Parkinson’s. Other emotional changes like fear, anxiety, or loss of motivation can also occur, and medication may be prescribed to address these symptoms.
- Swallowing Issues: As Parkinson’s progresses, swallowing difficulties may arise, resulting in saliva accumulation and drooling.
- Chewing and Eating Problems: Late-stage Parkinson’s can affect mouth muscles, making chewing challenging, potentially leading to choking and malnutrition.
- Sleep Problems: Sleep disturbances are common, including frequent awakenings, early waking, and daytime sleepiness. Some individuals may experience rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Medications may be prescribed to improve sleep.
- Bladder Problems: Parkinson’s can impact bladder control, causing difficulties in urination.
- Constipation: Many individuals with Parkinson’s develop constipation due to a slower digestive system.
Diagnostic Tests For Parkinson’s Disease
Diagnosing Parkinson’s disease involves a range of imaging and diagnostic tests, including:
- Blood Tests: These help rule out other forms of parkinsonism.
- Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan: This imaging method is used to assess brain structures.
- Genetic Testing: Genetic analysis may be conducted to identify specific markers.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI scans provide detailed images of the brain.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scans can reveal brain activity and abnormalities.
Researchers have also developed new lab tests for potential Parkinson’s indicators. These tests focus on the alpha-synuclein protein and employ innovative approaches:
- Spinal Tap: This test detects misfolded alpha-synuclein proteins in cerebrospinal fluid, collected through a spinal tap (lumbar puncture).
- Skin Biopsy: A biopsy of surface nerve tissue, taken from specific areas on the back and legs, can help identify certain alpha-synuclein malfunctions associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease.
While these tests may not provide definitive diagnostic results, they assist healthcare providers in making informed assessments regarding the condition.
Parkinson’s Disease Surgery In India
Apart from medicines, surgical options are also availabe to manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Surgery is considered to be a long-term method in maintaining the quality of life of the patient. The available options are:
- DBS: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) involves implanting electrodes in a specific brain area, connected to a chest-located generator. This device sends electrical pulses to alleviate Parkinson’s symptoms. Your healthcare team may adjust settings as needed, but surgery carries risks, including infections, stroke, or brain hemorrhage.
- Some experience complications or system problems requiring adjustments or parts replacement. DBS is typically offered to advanced Parkinson’s patients with unstable levodopa responses. It can stabilize medication fluctuations, reduce dyskinesia (involuntary movements), tremors, rigidity, and improve mobility. It’s effective for levodopa-related issues and tremors, even if less responsive to medication.
- While DBS can offer prolonged symptom relief, it doesn’t halt Parkinson’s progression.
- Ablative Surgery: This procedure targets and destroys specific brain areas affected by Parkinson’s. The goal is to eliminate tissue generating abnormal chemical or electrical signals causing symptoms like tremors. The most common ablative surgery is pallidotomy, which involves lesioning the globus pallidus.
- Transplantation: In restorative surgery, dopamine-producing cells are implanted into a specific brain region. These cells may originate from various sources, including the patient’s own body, human embryos, or pig embryos. Research on using stem cells for this purpose is ongoing.
Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Cost In India
The average Parkinson’s disease surgery cost in India falls between USD 5500 to USD 9000, depending on the type of surgery the patient would undergo.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Suregry Cost in India – USD 6000 to USD 7000
Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Hospitals In India
GoMedii has compiled a list of the top 10 hospitals offering Parkinson’s disease surgery in India. These hospitals have cutting-edge medical equipment to provide hassle-free, seamless treatment.
The hospitals are:
- Gleneagles Global Hospital, Hyderabad
- Max Super Specialty Hospital, Saket, Delhi
- Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad
- Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurugram
- Amri Hospital, Salt Lake, Kolkata
- BLK-Max Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi
- Fortis Hospital, Bannerghatta Road, Bengaluru
- Lilavati Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai
- Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, Delhi
- Apollo Hospital, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad
FAQs On Parkinson’s Disease Surgery Cost In India
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