- 1 What Is Tetralogy Of Fallot?
- 2 What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Causes?
- 3 What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Symptoms?
- 4 What Are The Risk Factors Of Tetralogy Of Fallot?
- 5 What Are The Complications Of Tetralogy Of Fallot?
- 6 How To Diagnose Tetralogy Of Fallot?
- 7 What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment In India?
- 9 Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Cost In India
- 10 Top Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Hospitals In India
- 11 FAQs On Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Cost In India
Did you know that Billy Kimmel, the son of the famous talk show host Jimmy Kimmel, was diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot? The diagnosis led Kimmel to discuss access to health care on his show, Jimmy Kimmel Live!
Read on to know more!
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What Is Tetralogy Of Fallot?
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart condition that occurs when a baby is born with four specific abnormalities in how their heart forms and functions. These abnormalities challenge the baby’s heart to effectively distribute adequate oxygen to its entire body.
Consequently, these structural defects within the heart result in oxygen-deficient blood being pumped out of the heart and circulated throughout the body. As a result, infants and children born with tetralogy of Fallot often exhibit bluish or cyanotic skin discoloration due to insufficient oxygen levels in their bloodstream.
Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is typically diagnosed in infancy or shortly after. Sometimes, ToF may not be detected until adulthood, depending on the defect’s severity and symptoms. Corrective surgery is necessary for all infants with TOF, regardless of their diagnosis. Individuals with ToF require lifelong medical monitoring and may face activity limitations.
What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Causes?
Tetralogy of Fallot occurs during fetal development, i.e., when the heart is developing in the fetus. The exact cause is unknown, but some plausible explanations are:
- Changes in a child’s DNA often occur independently and are not typically inherited from parents, especially in the case of heart abnormalities. However, when both parents have a heart issue, there may be a higher risk of transmission.
- Certain maternal factors during pregnancy can elevate the fetus’s risk of congenital heart problems. These include contracting rubella, having diabetes, consuming alcohol, or maintaining a poor diet while pregnant.
- Maternal age can also be a risk factor, with pregnancy after age 40 potentially increasing the likelihood of congenital heart issues.
- Additionally, a rare condition called phenylketonuria, characterized by an amino acid buildup, can raise the child’s susceptibility to heart problems.
What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Symptoms?
The symptoms of tetralogy of Fallot depend on the extent of blood flow blockage, affecting the oxygen flow in the body. The symptoms are:
- Cyanosis: Bluish skin coloration due to decreased blood oxygen levels.
- Shortness of breath and rapid breathing, particularly during activities like feeding or exercise.
- Poor weight gain.
- Fatigue and easily tiring during play or physical activity.
- Prolonged crying.
- Heart murmur.
- Fainting episodes.
- Clubbing: Abnormal, rounded nail bed shape in fingers and toes.
What Are The Risk Factors Of Tetralogy Of Fallot?
While scientists are yet to pinpoint the exact cause behind the disease, some factors can increase the chances of developing the congenital disorder, such as:
- Viral illnesses during pregnancy, like rubella (German measles).
- Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
- Inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
- Maternal age over 40.
- A parent with tetralogy of Fallot.
- The presence of conditions like Down syndrome or DiGeorge syndrome in the baby.
These factors can increase the likelihood of congenital heart defects in the newborn and highlight the importance of prenatal care and genetic counseling.
What Are The Complications Of Tetralogy Of Fallot?
While most babies and adults tend to do better post-surgery, ToF, being a complex congenital disease, still has some complications, such as:
- Leaking pulmonary valve (chronic pulmonary regurgitation) – Blood flows backward through the valve into the right ventricle.
- Leaking tricuspid valve.
- Persistent ventricular septal defects (holes between the ventricles) that may require re-repair or continue to leak.
- Enlargement and impaired function of the right or left ventricle.
- Irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
- Coronary artery disease.
- Enlargement of the ascending aorta (aortic root dilation).
- Risk of sudden cardiac death.
How To Diagnose Tetralogy Of Fallot?
Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed shortly after birth, typically when a baby exhibits bluish skin discoloration (cyanosis) and a doctor detects an abnormal heart sound (heart murmur) with a stethoscope.
Diagnostic tests for tetralogy of Fallot include:
- Pulse Oximetry: A small sensor on a finger or toe measures blood oxygen levels.
- Echocardiogram: This imaging test uses sound waves to create moving pictures of the heart, providing detailed information about the heart’s structure, function, and blood flow.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): An ECG records the heart’s electrical activity and can detect abnormalities or irregular heart rhythms. Electrodes on the chest, wrists, and ankles are connected to a computer to display the heart’s rhythm.
- Chest X-ray: This imaging technique helps visualize the heart and lungs. In the case of tetralogy of Fallot, a characteristic sign on an X-ray is a boot-shaped heart resulting from an enlarged right ventricle.
- Cardiac Catheterization: This invasive procedure involves inserting a flexible tube (catheter) into a blood vessel, typically in the groin, to reach the heart. Dye is used to enhance X-ray visualization, allowing doctors to assess heart structures, measure pressures, and determine oxygen levels in the heart’s chambers and blood vessels. Cardiac catheterization helps in planning surgical treatment.
These diagnostic tests play a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis, assessing the severity of the condition, and guiding appropriate treatment decisions for tetralogy of Fallot.
What Are The Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment In India?
Infants diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot require corrective surgery, typically performed by a cardiovascular surgeon. Without treatment, proper growth and development may be compromised. The timing and nature of the surgery are determined by the child’s or patient’s specific condition, assessed by a medical professional.
In some cases, children awaiting surgery may require medication to maintain adequate blood flow from the heart to the lungs.
Surgery options for tetralogy of Fallot include:
- Intracardiac Repair: This open-heart surgery is typically performed within the first year after birth and involves multiple repairs. In rare cases, adults with tetralogy of Fallot who didn’t undergo surgery as children may also undergo this procedure. The surgeon:
- Closes the ventricular septal defect, sealing the hole between the heart’s lower chambers (ventricles).
- Repairs or replaces the narrowed pulmonary valve to enhance blood flow to the lungs.
- Following intracardiac repair, the right ventricle’s workload decreases, allowing its wall to return to standard thickness. This results in increased oxygen levels in the blood and reduced symptoms.
- Temporary Shunt Surgery: In certain situations, infants may require temporary (palliative) surgery before intracardiac repair to improve lung blood flow. This may be necessary for premature infants or those with underdeveloped pulmonary arteries (hypoplastic). During this procedure, a bypass (shunt) is created between a large artery branching off from the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
When the child is ready for intracardiac repair, the surgeon removes the shunt during the intracardiac repair procedure.
These surgical interventions are crucial for managing and correcting tetralogy of Fallot, ultimately improving blood flow and the patient’s overall health.
Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Cost In India
The tetralogy of Fallot treatment cost in India ranges between USD 4000 to USD 6000.
Top Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Hospitals In India
GoMedii has compiled a list of the top 10 hospitals offering tetralogy of Fallot treatment in India. These hospitals have cutting-edge medical equipment to provide hassle-free, seamless treatment.
The hospitals are:
- Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai
- Fortis Hospital, Bangalore
- Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad
- Nanavati Super Specialty Hospital, Mumbai
- Medanta the Medicity, Gurugram
- Max Super Specialty Hospital, Saket, Delhi
- Gleneagles Global Hospital, Hyderabad
- BLK Super Specialty Hospital, Delhi
- Fortis Hospital, NOIDA
- Artemis Hospital, Gurugram
FAQs On Tetralogy Of Fallot Treatment Cost In India
1. What are the four defects of tetralogy?
The four defects of tetralogy of Fallot include pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
2. What is the most common symptom of tetralogy of Fallot?
The most common symptom of tetralogy of Fallot is cyanosis, characterized by bluish discoloration of the skin due to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.
3. What are the key features of the tetralogy of Fallot?
Critical features of tetralogy of Fallot include a combination of congenital heart defects, unequal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, and potential surgical intervention to correct the abnormalities.
4. What are the names of the tetralogy of Fallot?
Tetralogy of Fallot is also known as “ToF” or “TOF” for short.
5. What is the tetralogy of fallot treatment cost in India?
The tetralogy of fallot treatment cost in India ranges between USD 4000 to USD 6000.
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