What Are the Male Infertility Causes And Treatment In India?

Zaid Siddiqui

, Treatments

What Is Male Infertility?


It is the most common problem in males which is directly associated with their reproductive health. A medical report suggests that approximately 7 million men across the world experience male infertility. In this situation, sexual dysfunction occurs frequently and the person is not able to have children. This disability leads to high anxiety, stress, frustration, and sometimes depression.


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Most male infertility victims may experience social issues such as violence, divorce, social stigma, emotional stress, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem.


What Are The Complications Associated With Male Infertility?


Several observations may conclude the complications of male infertility include:



What Are The Emotional Side Effects Of Male Infertility?


We are living in a society where male infertility is considered a very unnatural topic and most men are often reluctant to seek treatment for infertility. Most men relate fertility with masculinity and feel too shy to talk about it. At the time of diagnosis, they can feel frustrated, disappointed, and lost.

What Are The Symptoms of Male Infertility?


Typically, most symptoms remain hidden until its late but some that one can watch for are:


  • Decreased sexual desire
  • Difficulty in maintaining an erection
  • Problems with ejaculation
  • Loss of ability to smell
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Pain, swelling, or lumps in the testicular area
  • Abnormal breast growth
  • Sparse facial and body hair may be linked to hormonal imbalances.
  • If any of these signs are experienced, it is advisable to seek medical attention and undergo appropriate testing to identify and address the root cause of infertility.
  • Early detection and treatment can make a significant difference in the chances of successful conception.

What Are The Male Infertility Causes?


Male infertility is one of the common problems flourishing among men, various significant causes may include:


  • Drug use: Excessive use of anabolic steroids for muscle growth leads to reduced testicle size and sperm production. Several other drugs such as marijuana and cocaine temporarily decrease sperm count.


  • Alcohol use: Alcohol plays a very prominent role in erectile dysfunction, excessive consumption of alcohol lowers testosterone levels and decreases the sperm count which causes male infertility.


  • Tobacco smoking: Smoking is one of the very common elements that causes infertility in men. Generally, smoking endangers the sperm count.


  • Weight: In this situation, excessive body weight increases the risk of hormonal imbalance that directly or indirectly impairs fertility.


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What Are The Medicinal Causes Of Male Infertility?


Apart from several interventional causes male infertility also gets affected by some medical treatments:


Ejaculation issues: In this situation, the semen enters into the bladder instead of emerging out of the tip of the penis.


The causes of retrograde ejaculations are:


Antibodies that attack sperm: Sometimes antibodies mistakenly identify sperm as harmful invaders and try to kill them.


Varicocele: It is a condition in which inflammations inside the veins occur, that directly affect the sperm quality and quantity.


Tumor Surgery: Cancer treatments and tumor surgeries directly affect the male reproductive system, which results in male infertility.


Cystic Fibrosis and Kallmann’s Syndrome: In this condition, the defect of abnormal chromosomes plays a pivotal role in male infertility. Due to abnormal two X and one Y chromosomes the male reproductive system becomes abnormally dysfunctional.


Defects of tubules that transport sperm: Blockage inside tubes that carry sperm, leads to the development of the chances of male infertility. There are various reasons for this condition such as inadvertent injury from surgery, prior infections, and trauma.


Celiac disease: In many cases men with celiac disease, have much higher chances of sperm abnormality. Typically, celiac disease is a disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten ( a protein found in wheat). This problem can be solved by adopting a gluten-free diet.


Infection: There are some sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea or HIV. These infections lead to affect sperm health and production.


There are certain forms  of surgeries that may directly or indirectly prevent male fertility such as: 


  • Vasectomy
  • Scrotal or testicular surgeries
  • Prostrate Surgeries
  • large Abdominal Surgeries


Environmental Inability


There are certain environmental element that provokes male infertility:


  • Industrial chemicals
  • Heavy metal exposure
  • Radiation or X-rays
  • Overheating the testicles


How To Detect Male Infertility?


Male Infertility is one of the major problems in men, there are various diagnostic tests to determine this problem.


These diagnostic tests may include:


  • Physical Examination: Initially, your doctor may examine your body condition and may ask you about any previous surgery, trauma, inherited condition, chronic health problems, etc. Sometimes doctors may also ask about your sexual habits and about your sexual development during puberty.


  • Semen analysis: It is an intermediate step in which your sample semen is collected to measure the sperm count and to check the quality of your sperm. Typically, the sperm count fluctuates very frequently so, you may perform this procedure a couple of times to obtain an accurate result.


There are several methods for semen sampling you can provide a sample by masturbating and ejaculation into a spinal container. In some cases, due to religious beliefs, one can provide a sample by collecting it in a condom while performing intercourse.


Apart from these diagnostic tests, your doctor may suggest you have several other tests such as:


  • Testicular biopsy: This is also known as percutaneous biopsy, this procedure involves small needle incisions that help in removing the sample tissue from the testis.
  • Detection of retrograde ejaculations: This procedure involves post-ejaculation urinalysis, which helps determine the sperm leakage into the bladder instead of out your penis during ejaculation.
  • Hormonal check: Sometimes hormonal check-ups may be included in the diagnostic test for male infertility because various glands such as the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and testicles release abnormal hormones that lead to impaired sexual development and sperm production.
  • Genetic tests: Genetics and chromosomal test plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of male infertility. Generally, a genetic disorder increases the chances of defects in male chromosomes.
  • Scrotal ultrasound: This procedure helps in obtaining images of male testicles and surrounding tissues. It helps in determining varicocele or other problems linked with testicles.
  • Transrectal ultrasound: A small outpatient procedure that helps in obtaining the image of prostrate glands, which detects the blockage in the tubes that carry semen. Generally, this procedure will take 5- 10 minutes hardly.


What Are The Treatments For Male Infertility In India?


Male infertility has become one of the leading problems among men. India is a premier destination for those who want treatments for male infertility. Due to advancements in the field of urology in India, the methods of treatment also increased.


There are several treatments that include male infertility:


1. Medical Treatments


There are several hormonal treatments, that help increase the sperm count. These hormonal treatments may include:


  • HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) or HMG (Human Menopausal Gonadotropin): HCG, is a type of hormonal treatment that increases the testosterone level and increase the productibility of sperm count. You can take HCG with the combination of HMG.
  • GnRH Therapy: It is a therapy that stimulates the release of hormones that are responsible for spermatogenesis(sperm production).
  • Clomiphene: Clomiphene is generally given to females to prevent infertility but doctors can also prescribe clomid for men for off-label use. It helps to boost the low sperm count in men.
  • Estrogen Modulators and tamoxifen: It helps in managing the hormonal levels and regulating them accordingly.
  • Aromatase Inhibitors: This method of medication helps in preventing the conversion of androgens to estrogen.
  • Anastrozole or Arimidex: Anastrozole generally blocks the enzymes, aromatase, that help in preventing the conversion of testosterone into estradiol. In this way, it provokes the testosterone level and decreases the estrogen level.
  • Semen Processing: It is a technique to enhance the poor quality of semen that increases the level of high fertility in men.


2. Surgical Treatments


  • Vasoepididymostomy: This microscopic procedure is called to reduce the epididymal obstruction that occurs. Typically, this procedure is considered one of the most challenging, with excellent microscopic skills and extensive experience surgeons perform this procedure between the vas defenders.
  • TURP (Transurethral Resection of the Prostate):
  • TURP is a surgical intervention used to address prostatitis, which can negatively impact fertility.
  • Sperm Retrieval: This procedure is merely done to collect sperm from different parts of the reproductive tract. It is only done when the man can’t be able to produce a baby.


3. Other Treatments


  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): It is the most successful mode of treatment under which a single sperm is injected into the egg. This method is called out in very severe conditions of male infertility.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF): A very complex procedure that involves the retrieval of eggs from ovaries, then directly single sperm is injected into each mature egg manually in the lab of fertilization. This procedure totally depends upon the choice of the patient.

What Are The Best Hospitals For Male Infertility Treatments In India?


India is progressively gaining excellence in the field of Urology. From decades of medical expertise, India has become very proficient in treatment related to male infertility. Here is a list of top hospitals with the best clinical experience with age-long recognition.


  1. ART Fertility Clinics, GurugramDelhi NCR
  2. Indraprastha Apollo Hospital New DelhiDelhi NCR
  3. NOVA IVF Fertility, Mumbai
  4. World Infertility, New DelhiDelhi NCR
  5. Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New DelhiDelhi NCR
  6. Apollo Fertility Center, Delhi
  7. Nova IVF Fertility, Chennai
  8. Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital & Research InstituteMumbai
  9. Fortis La Femme, New DelhiDelhi NCR
  10. Advance Fertility and Gynaecology Centre, New Delhi


FAQs Related To Male Infertility Causes And Treatments In India


Q: Is male infertility curable?


A: Yes, male infertility is curable, you can undergo non-surgical treatment, surgical treatment, therapy, and other assistive reproductive techniques.


Q: Can Ayurveda cure male infertility?


A: Yes, there are several methods in Ayurveda that help in the treatment of male infertility. In many cases, it shows male fertility is properly treatable with ayurveda.


Q: Why is my sperm not strong?


A: Several researchers may suggest that less sleep, bad lifestyle, drug abuse, etc leads to the development of the chances of weaker sperms.


Q: Which foods increase sperm count?


A: Fruits and vegetables are vital food supplements that increase the rate of sperm count.


Q: Is 60 sperm motility good?


A: Sperm motility of more than 40% is considered to be a good sign of male fertility. The higher the rate of motility greater the chances of more sperm that can swim to meet the egg.

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